branded YouTube channel

Celebrity endorsers effective at Instagram?


The latest report (see literature list) on influencer marketing from Marketing Week showed that 84% of all marketers find it a challenge to determine the ROI of influencer marketing. Despite this challenge, marketers generally believe that influencer marketing is an effective strategy to bring products and services to the attention of consumers. And that’s not without reason, as recent research showed that 77% of all consumers worldwide take action after seeing a recommendation on social media from friends, family or acquaintances. This could imply that bloggers and vloggers who have become known on social media would be more effective than celebrities who do not derive their reputation from social media (such as from their profession or other media, but who are active on social media).

In the current research literature, people who have grown up on social media (such as Anna Nooshin and Nicky de Jager) are referred to as non-traditional influencers; people who enjoy public recognition by means of their profession (sportsman, actor, musician, TV presenter, etc.) or other media and are active on social media are often referred to as traditional celebrity influencers. Marketers and researchers often assume that non-traditional influencers are more effective to use in campaigns because they would be more credible and authentic and they belong to the group of young people they trust (ingroup). But is that also the case? Recent research shows that this is not always the case.

Let’s first determine why both types of influencers are able to influence consumers. Influencers can transfer the meaning they have acquired to a brand when they recommend products or services. For example, the expertise of an influencer can play a decisive role in enticing consumers to buy games. In another case, the physical attractiveness of an influencer can play a decisive role in tempting consumers to buy, for example, beauty products. Research shows that it is important that there is a match/fit between the influencer and the endorsed product, otherwise there will be no transfer of meaning. But does this transfer of meaning take place and how do influencers convince consumers? This process can be explained using the Social Influence theory.

This theory identifies two mechanisms that can play a role in changing consumers’ attitudes and behaviours in response to an influencer’s message, namely through internalization and/or identification. Internalisation of an influencer message occurs when the influencer is associated with credibility. Characteristics such as expertise, trustworthiness, authenticity and goodwill play a role in this. The consumer then adopts the influencer’s attitude and behaviour because his or her own ideas and values are in line with those of the influencer. Identification occurs when the influencer is associated with attractiveness. Characteristics such as similarity between influencer and consumer, likeability and awareness of the influencer play a role. In this way, the consumer adopts the attitude and behaviour because it enables the consumer to create a desired image of himself to the outside world. The content of the message plays a less important role. In other words, the consumer likes to be associated with the influencer and wants to show this to the outside world.

However, little is known about the difference in effectiveness of traditional and non-traditional influencers. In addition, little is known about the mechanisms that can explain the effectiveness of different influencers. But are non-traditional influencers more effective than traditional influencers?

To provide insight into this, a several studies were conducted last year (2019) in collaboration with master students of Communication Science at the Vrije Universiteit (Amsterdam) into the effectiveness of the two types of influencers: traditional versus non-traditional celebrity influencers who are in the top 10 of Dutch Instagrammers. For this purpose, 8 different experiments were conducted with different Instagram influencers (both traditional and non-traditional). Table 1 shows an overview of the bloggers/vloggers studied on Instagram. The rows show the names of the influencers who have been studied against each other in each experiment. In each experiment, half of the participants received a traditional celebrity influencer.






The research revealed that traditional celebrity influencers – especially if known from TV – are more effective than non-traditional influencers when it comes to influencing brand attitudes and buying intentions. So, when traditional celebrity influencers (known from TV) such as Nicolette van Dam, Bregje Heinen, Gwen van Poorten and Shelly Sterk are compared with non-traditional influencers such as Nina Warink, Mascha Feoktistova, Noor de Groot or Diane Leeflang, then TV presenters on Instagram are more effective.


If you contrast traditional celebrity influencers – who enjoy recognition as a model – with non-traditional influencers, then the non-traditional influencers are more effective. In the latter case, it means that non-traditional influencers such as Claartje Rose, Nienke Plas and Mascha Feoktistova are more effective than not like Kim Feenstra, Sanne Kramer and Romee Strijd. It is also striking that non-traditional influencers are not always more effective because they are more credible, as is often assumed. A blogger like Nienke Plas is both more attractive and more credible than a model like Sanne Kramer. Consumers do not only consider the expertise, reliability, authenticity and goodwill when it comes to influencing, but also appearance such as attractiveness, familiarity and similarities between influencer and consumer. On the basis of this research, it can be stated that the influence of well-known TV personalities on social media should not be levelled out. These people are often strong personal brands. They are very credibly and attractively positioned on the channels where they present themselves. And when social media users experience the presenters in the same way, they are extremely suitable for use in influencer campaigns. If you have the choice between using a model as a traditional celebrity influencer or a non-traditional influencer in a campaign, it is better to choose a non-traditional influencer. It is also concluded that both internalization and identification can play a role in the effectiveness of influencers.


  • De Veirman, M., Cauberghe, V., & Hudders, L. (2017). Marketing through Instagram influencers: the impact of number of followers and product divergence on brand attitude. International Journal of Advertising, 36(5), 798-828.
  • Djafarova, E., & Rushworth, C. (2017). Exploring the credibility of online celebrities’ Instagram profiles in influencing the purchase decisions of young female users. Computers in Human Behavior, 68, 1-7.
  • Halima, N. B., Skandrani, H., & Ayadi, N. (2017). Celebrity Endorsement on Social Networks Sites: Impact of his/her credibility and congruence with the endorsed product, on the consumer’s information adoption and dissemination Digital Economy. Emerging Technologies and Business Innovation: Springer, Cham.
  • Jin, S. V., & Ryu, E. (2018). Celebrity fashion brand endorsement in Facebook viral marketing and social commerce: Interactive effects of social identification, materialism, fashion involvement, and opinion leadership. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 0(0), null.
  • Kamins, M. A., & Gupta, K. (1994). Congruence between spokesperson and product type: A matchup hypothesis perspective. Psychology & Marketing, 11(6), 569-586.
  • Kapitan, S., & Silvera, D. H. (2016). From digital media influencers to celebrity endorsers: attributions drive endorser effectiveness. [journal article]. Marketing Letters, 27(3), 553-567.
  • Lee, J. E., & Watkins, B. (2016). YouTube vloggers’ influence on consumer luxury brand perceptions and intentions. Journal of Business Research, 69(12), 5753-5760.
  • Ohanian, R. (1991). The impact of celebrity spokespersons’ perceived image on consumers’ intention to purchase. Journal of advertising Research, 31(1), 46-54.
  • Penny, S. (2019). Proving the ROI of influencer marketing is challenging but it can be done. Marketing Week.
  • Phua, J., Jin, S. V., & Kim, J. (2017). Gratifications of using Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or Snapchat to follow brands: The moderating effect of social comparison, trust, tie strength, and network homophily on brand identification, brand engagement, brand commitment, and membership intention. Telematics and Informatics, 34(1), 412-424.
  • Zhu, J., & Tan, B. (2007). Effectiveness of blog advertising: Impact of communicator expertise, advertising intent, and product involvement. ICIS 2007 proceedings, 121.
Posted by Klapper  |  0 Comment  |  in branded YouTube channel, Influencer marketing, Nicky de Jager, Nicolette van Dam, user generated content

How to optimise the content of a branded YouTube channel?

Today we launch our new website ( and our new research tool ReelRater™. The tool is developed in co-operation with technology provider ActiveReaction. The tool measures the moment-to-moment likeability of YouTube videos, TV commercials and programmes, radio programmes, promos and trailers. ReelRater™ is not an app, but it runs in any standard browser. Placing a link on your website or social media platform is sufficient to enable communities or access panels to rate your content. In this blog we like to show you how the tool can be used to optimise a branded YouTube channel.

Business case

We use a recent study to illustrate this: a YouTube channel of a premium Dutch brand. The channel predominantly distributes ‘how- to’ videos and instructional videos, of which photodune-6028779-mobile-phone-m transparant +screenshot 150two video formats are examined. The aim of this study was to assess the likeability of a ‘how-to’ video (duration 4:20 min.) and an instructional video (duration 3:30 min.). In addition, we aimed to assess the willingness of viewers to like the videos, comment on the videos (engagement) and subscribe to the channel (action). The sample consisted of high educated youngsters group aged 18-30, who used the ReelRater™ tool to rate the videos moment-to-moment (quantitative response) with their smartphone, tablet or laptop. Each individual viewer was asked to explain his/her highest and lowest scores (qualitative response) by means of open questions. Finally the viewers filled out a questionnaire.

Likeability of the videos

The graphs below show the moment-to-moment (MTM) likeability responses to the examined videos. The videos are rated by two different groups. The horizontal axis represents the elapsed time and the vertical axis represents the average likeability measured on a 10-100 scale.
Graph blog UK
The MTM scores of the instructional video (left) shows a rather zigzagged pattern. The scores decline in the first 40 seconds, indicating a high probability of viewers leaving the video and stop viewing. The decline is followed by a gradually rise in scores unto the second minute, where after the scores drop again. The main reasons why certain parts of the video score relatively low, is the mismatch between information supply and demand. Most of the information is already known and is rather obvious. Moreover, the cutting rhythm of the video is perceived as too slow.

The MTM scores of the ‘how-to’ video also fluctuate. The first 32 seconds of the video show a decline in scores, followed by a? rise. Scores between 0:56 minute and 1:20 minute again fluctuate, but rise from the 1:24 minute. The viewers were also asked to explain the low rated parts of the video. Viewers again ascertain a mismatch between viewers’ knowledge and informational content of the video. As with the instructional video the viewers’ point out that the cutting rhythm is too slow. Furthermore the voice-over doesn’t appeal the viewers.

Engagement and action

A frequent used method of determining the engagement of your audience with video is to look at how many times the video is liked or commented. Behavior is frequently measured by the number of people subscribing to a branded channel (see image below). Metrics branded conentFor this reason we asked the viewers about their engagement and intention to subscribe to the channel.

Liking and Intention

It is striking that the intention to become a subscriber to the YouTube channel does not differ between viewers who see the instructional video and viewer who see the ‘how-to’ video. But viewers who see the ‘how-to’ video are more likely to comment upon the video than viewers who see the instructional video. There is only a small difference between the two groups of viewers when it comes to liking the video.


How can one optimise the videos (‘how-to’ video and the instructional video) based on the findings of this research?
First, the relevance of the content across the videos could be improved by providing more in-depth information. The intros of the videos can be mounted more exciting and faster. The viewer must indeed be tempted to watch out the entire video.
Second, the order in which the information is presented on the basis of the viewer’s evaluation of the various sequences can be improved. And also the cutting rhythm with which the information is presented, could be increased too. Finally adjustments can be made on the recording of the voice-over to make it more smooth, clear and enjoyable. The improvements of the videos will optimise the YouTube channel and will probably increase the video interaction.

If you have any questions or remarks, please click the comment button beneath this blog.

Charles Vaneker
Klapper Communications
Senior Media & Research Consultant
Twitter: CharlesVaneker

Posted by Klapper  |  0 Comment  |  in : tv-trend, branded YouTube channel, online video, online video formats, Post-test, Pre-test, ReelRater
© 2018 Klapper Communicatie